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Effect of salicylic acid chemical peeling and difference from lactic acid and glycolic acid



Effect of salicylic acid chemical peeling and difference from lactic acid and glycolic acid

Chemical peeling is a treatment that uses chemicals to remove dead skin cells and improve skin quality . By exfoliating the keratin, various symptoms can be expected to improve.

Since there are different types of chemical peeling agents, it is effective to use different agents according to your skin problems. Salicylic acid is one of the drugs .

Salicylic acid is also contained in peels that can be performed at home, but the effect is mild compared to chemical peels at medical institutions, and it can be said that it is easier to obtain the effect if you receive treatment at a medical institution. It is safe to check in advance why the effects are different between your home and medical institution, and the side effects that occur rarely.

Also, by knowing the differences and characteristics of salicylic acid compared to other drugs such as glycolic acid and lactic acid, you can receive the treatment that suits you.

Characteristics and action of salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid called BHA

Salicylic acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid called BHA. It is used as a chemical peeling agent because it has "keratin dissolving action" that weakens the bond between keratins on the outermost side of the skin, "keratin softening action" that softens keratin, and "anti-inflammatory action" that suppresses inflammation .

Overseas, it is used in chemical peeling treatments without diluting salicylic acid, but since the skin thickness of Orientals is thinner than that of Westerners, salicylic acid easily penetrates deep into the skin and there is a risk of pain. For this reason, "macrogol salicylate" , which is a mixture of macrogol and macrogol, is commonly used in Japan .

Before the development of macrogol salicylate, ethanol mixed with ethanol was used, but although it penetrates deep into the skin and is highly effective , it can also penetrate into the blood and cause salicylate poisoning. I was shunned .

Therefore, a new chemical peeling agent that absorbs salicylic acid into polyethylene glycol, also known as macrogol, has been developed and is now used as salicylic acid macrogol.

Salicylic acid used for purposes other than chemical peels

Salicylic acid has a keratin softening effect that softens the keratin and an antibacterial effect against athlete's foot causative agent, callus, so it is not only used as a chemical peeling agent, but also as a "Uonome" and "Uonome" that can be produced by hard keratin. In addition to the treatment of octopus, it is also used as an ingredient in ointments and tapes used to treat athlete's foot .

Action and effect of chemical peeling

The main action of chemical peels is to exfoliate the skin, which can be expected to normalize the turnover cycle, which is the metabolism of the skin, and restore the original function of the skin .

Promotion of turnover

Skin structure and turnover mechanism

The epidermis is layered from the bottom to the basal layer, the stratum granulosum, the stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum, and the average thickness of Japanese people is said to be about 0.2 mm.

In the basal layer, there are cells that produce keratinocytes (keratinocytes) called basal cells, and they are called "stem cells" because they continue to produce keratinocytes.

Keratinocytes move upward while forming stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum by repeating "differentiation" that has a specific role, and finally become nucleiless keratinocytes. The process of turning keratinocytes into keratinocytes is called "keratinization."

Turnover is the metabolism of the skin, which is the process of basal cells being generated, becoming keratinocytes, and peeling off, which takes about 28 days . Keratinization is part of the turnover process.

As a cause of disturbed turnover, excessive skin care, ultraviolet rays, pollen, etc. accelerate the turnover cycle, and the activity of basal cells decreases with aging, which slows down the cycle, causing the skin to become dry and acne and other skin. It leads to trouble .

Improvement of dry skin

When the turnover cycle is restored to normal by chemical peeling, you can prevent the skin from drying out. Reasons for dry skin include hypertrophy of the stratum corneum, disruption of the barrier function of the skin, and uneven size of keratinocytes.

In the stratum corneum, the natural moisturizing factor "NMF" (Natural Moisturizing Factor) that retains water in the keratinocytes, the "skin oil film" that prevents the evaporation of water from the skin, and the "keratinocyte lipid" that connects the keratinocytes. By adjusting these balances, the barrier function that protects the skin from external stimuli such as ultraviolet rays and pollen is maintained.

However, if the turnover cycle is disturbed and the production of keratinocytes is accelerated, the production of NMF is also accelerated. This produces immature NMF with less water than normal, resulting in keratinocytes with different water content and shape.

If the skin becomes uneven due to the accumulation of keratinocytes with different shapes, the balance of NMF, sebum membrane, and lipids between keratinocytes will be lost, the barrier function will be reduced, and water will evaporate, making the skin easier to dry .

Improvement of dullness and dark spots

When the turnover cycle is disturbed, old and unevenly sized keratin accumulates, and light does not pass through the inside of the skin and reflection is less likely to occur, making the skin look dull .

By adjusting the turnover cycle, NMF in the keratinocytes is also generated in the normal cycle, and the stratum corneum is formed by the uniform keratinocytes . Then, the light is easily transmitted and the light is reflected inside the skin, which makes the skin look brighter.

In addition, when the turnover cycle is adjusted by chemical peeling, melanin pigment is discharged along with the keratin, which can be expected to improve spots .

Spots, also known as senile pigment spots, are caused by the accumulation of melanin pigments caused by long-term exposure to ultraviolet rays.

When exposed to UV light, the melanocytes in the basal layer produce melanin pigments to protect the skin. Normally, the melanin pigment is peeled off together with the keratin, but if the turnover cycle is disturbed, the melanin pigment is not discharged and accumulates in the skin, so it appears as spots.

Improvement of fine wrinkles and crater skin

Depending on the chemical peeling agent, it can be expected to be effective in improving fine wrinkles and crater skin.

The skin is composed of the epidermis layer, dermis layer, and subcutaneous fat from the outside, but the cause of fine wrinkles and crater skin is the elastic fiber elastin that gathers hyaluronic acid, collagen, and collagen present in the dermis layer. There is a decrease.

Crater skin is a condition in which the dermis layer, which does not undergo turnover like the epidermis, is damaged and the skin becomes uneven, and is mostly caused by acne inflammation .

When a chemical peeling agent penetrates into the dermis layer, fibroblasts that produce hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin are activated, leading to improvement of fine wrinkles and crater skin.

However, for deep wrinkles and craters that are difficult to improve with chemical peels, other treatments such as laser treatment and injection may be recommended.

Improves conspicuous pores and smoothes skin texture

There are fine grooves on the surface of the skin called "skin grooves". The skin grooves intersect in a mesh pattern, and the part that is surrounded by the skin grooves and is high is called the "skin hill". "Skin texture is in order" means that the skin grooves are narrow and the skin hills are the same size.

The pores are located at the intersection of the skin grooves and the skin hills, and the pores are less noticeable than the well-textured skin.

When the amount of water is low and old keratin accumulates, the texture becomes rough and the pores become noticeable . Therefore, if old keratin is removed by chemical peeling and a stratum corneum with sufficient water content is formed, the texture will be improved and the pores will be less noticeable.

Improvement of rosacea

Alcohol is a symptom of a long-lasting reddish face around the cheeks and forehead. The cause of rosacea is unknown, but is believed to be due to genetic factors, immune disorders on the skin surface of the face, bacterial infections and the growth of parasites.

Although no radical cure has been established and it is said that chemical peeling can improve the condition, antibiotics and laser treatment are common.

Acne prevention

The sebum secreted from the pores covers the skin and forms a sebum film that mixes with sweat and prevents the evaporation of water. However, when keratin accumulates, the pores are closed and sebum accumulates in the pores, resulting in comedones (comedones), which are early acne before inflammation occurs as keratin plugs .

When the pores are clogged, P. acnes, which feeds on sebum, proliferates and causes inflammation, which exacerbates acne.

Chemical peeling to remove dead skin cells also removes dead skin cells, which can be said to prevent early acne .

In addition, by using a chemical peeling agent that has the effect of killing P. acnes, it can be expected to be effective against inflamed acne.

Areas and precautions that can be performed with chemical peels

Area where chemical peeling is possible

Chemical peels can be applied to the following areas in addition to the face.

  • Decorte
  • back
  • breast
  • Both elbows
  • Waist
  • Butt
  • knee
  • ankle

Actions to refrain from before chemical peeling

When chemical peels are applied when the skin is inflamed, the drug may penetrate deep into the skin, causing redness and sores . Therefore, avoid irritating the skin about a month before receiving the treatment.

Days until treatment Notes
1 month ago Chemical peeling, electric / wax hair removal, permanent makeup, laser treatment
3 weeks ago Sunburn
1 week ago Use of topical medications for acne treatment
3 days ago to the day Pack, shave, scrub face wash

Actions to refrain from after chemical peeling

Please note the following, as the skin is prone to dryness and irritation after chemical peeling.

In addition, it is recommended to use sunscreen for one month after the treatment because ultraviolet rays and friction are easily affected by external stimuli and stains are likely to occur .

Days from the procedure Notes
Until one month later Chemical peeling, electric / wax hair removal, permanent makeup, laser treatment
Until 2 weeks later Excessive sunburn
Until one week later Pool / hot spring, heavy drinking, pack, scrubbing, shaving, massage, perm / color

Those who need consultation with a doctor when receiving a chemical peel

  • During herpes treatment
  • Keloid constitution
  • Pregnant / lactating
  • Those who have undergone radiation therapy or surgery within 2 months
  • Those who have pain sensation disorder / nerve paralysis at the treatment site
  • Those who have flat warts on the treatment site

Macrogol salicylate is effective in improving acne

Macrogol salicylic acid is a combination of salicylic acid and macrogol base, and is mainly used in Japan . Salicylic acid is easily recrystallized when adjusted and neutralized, and it is difficult to formulate it. Therefore, salicylic acid is used at a predetermined concentration of 30% and a pH of 1.7 .

Similar to other chemical peeling agents, chemical peeling with salicylic acid can be expected to improve dry skin, dullness / blemishes, wrinkles and crater skin, pore troubles, and rosacea . Above all, it is said to be effective in improving acne .

Since salicylic acid is fat-soluble and easily soluble in fat, it can dissolve keratin plugs that have clogged pores, and by improving the clogging of pores, it leads to the improvement of acne .

In addition to improving acne, it also has the effect of exfoliating keratin, so you can aim for skin that is less prone to acne by preventing pore clogging .

Why salicylic acid macrogol is less likely to cause redness and sores

When saturic acid is combined with macrogol base, it does not penetrate into the layers below the stratum corneum, so it tends to be less prone to redness and sores caused by deep penetration of the drug .

Since the stratum corneum is highly lipophilic as a whole, it has a high affinity for salicylic acid, which is lipophilic, and tends to be easily absorbed by the skin.

When salicylic acid penetrates deep into the skin, it may be absorbed by the blood from the sebaceous glands and cause salicylic acid poisoning. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the absorption into the skin for safe use.

In order for the drug to penetrate only into the stratum corneum, it is necessary to increase the affinity of the base to be mixed with salicylic acid and keep salicylic acid in the base.

Since the macrogol base used for salicylic acid macrogol is a water-soluble base that is not absorbed transdermally, it should be mixed with salicylic acid that is easily absorbed by the skin to retain salicylic acid in the macrogol base. Is possible .

Therefore, salicylic acid uses a macrogol base.

What you need to know before doing salicylic acid macrogol

Number and Fees of Salicylic Acid Macrogol

Macrogol salicylate can be taken at a pace of basically once every two weeks to one month . You may feel the effect at once, but if you receive regular treatment, the turnover cycle will be adjusted and you can expect improvement of skin quality .

Macrogol salicylate is a free practice and is not covered by insurance, so the cost varies depending on the medical institution. In addition, it may be bundled with another treatment such as iontophoresis, so please contact each medical institution before the treatment for detailed costs.

Salicylic acid macrogol
One-time cost 5,500 yen to 25,500 yen
Number of times 3 to 6 times

The number of treatments may vary depending on the condition of the skin and acne.

Possible complications after salicylic acid macrogol treatment

Macrogol salicylate has no downtime and reacts only to the stratum corneum, so it tends to have fewer side effects such as redness and sores caused by the drug penetrating deep into the skin.

Be careful immediately after the salicylic acid macrogol treatment

After the salicylic acid macrogol treatment is completed, it will not interfere with your daily life, but please follow the instructions of the doctor of the medical institution and pay attention to the following.

      • Bath / face wash

It is possible from the day, but be careful not to rub the treatment site. However, avoid hot saunas and bathing at sweaty temperatures for about 3 days to avoid improving blood circulation.

      • make

Depending on the medical institution, makeup can be applied immediately after the procedure. Please contact us in advance as it depends on the medical institution.

      • motion

Light exercise that does not sweat can be performed from the same day, and actions that activate blood circulation such as strenuous exercise can be performed from the next day. Please refrain from using the pool for one week after the procedure, as chlorine stimulation can cause pigmentation.

      • Drinking

You can drink alcohol from the day of the event, but please refrain from drinking too much on the day of the event as it may promote excessive blood circulation.

Flow of treatment

(1) Counseling

We will check the condition of the skin and prepare for the treatment.
If you need to consult a doctor, please consult at the time of counseling.

(2) Face wash

If you are wearing make-up, you need to remove the make-up before the procedure.

(3) Peeling treatment

The application time of macrogol salicylate is about 5 minutes.

(4) Cooling

Wipe off macrogol salicylate and cool the affected area if necessary.

Chemical peeling agents other than salicylic acid macrogol

Peeling level name Depth to be peeled off Drugs used Indications
1 Shallow layer Horny layer Fruit acid with a concentration of 20% to 35%, salicylic acid Trichloroacetic acid with a concentration of 10% to 20% Acne / Acne Scars Freckles Chloasma
2 Shallow layer Granular layer
3 Middle layer Part of the epidermis-dermis papillary layer Glycolic acid with a concentration of 50% to 70% Trichloroacetic acid with a concentration of 35% to 50% Spot pigmentation
Four Deep Epidermis-dermis papillary layer, reticular layer Baker Gordon liquid Phenol (concentration 88% or more) Deep wrinkles Acne scars Large pores Sagging

Glycolic acid

Chemical peels were said to be contraindicated for the yellow race, but since the safety and effectiveness of glycolic acid was confirmed in the United States, chemical peels have become widespread in Japan as well.

Glycolic acid, like macrogol salicylate, is a commonly used drug .

Glycolic acid is a type of a-hydroxy acid called AHA, and AHA is also called fruit acid because it is often contained in fruits.

Glycolic acid can be adjusted in concentration and pH according to the condition and symptoms of the skin .

In addition to adjusting the concentration and pH, the depth of penetration of the drug varies depending on the application time to the skin, so it is suitable for various symptoms, but when high-concentration glycolic acid is applied, sores, redness, and pigmentation occur. It may occur .

Difference from salicylic acid macrogol

Salicylic acid macrogol Glycolic acid
Type of acid BHA AHA
Acid properties Fat-soluble Water soluble
Side effects Rarely redness, sores, scabs Redness, sores, scabs
Feature Exfoliation, softening of keratin Desquamation of keratin, weakening of keratin bond

While salicylic acid is fat-soluble, which is easily soluble in sebum, glycolic acid is water-soluble, which is easily soluble in water. Like salicylic acid, it has a keratin exfoliating effect, so you can remove keratin by applying a drug .

Since the stratum corneum is highly lipophilic, it can be said that salicylic acid, which is lipophilic, has a higher affinity than glycolic acid. On the other hand, because it has a high affinity with the stratum corneum, it is easily absorbed by the skin, and if it penetrates deeply, it may cause salicylate poisoning, so it is used in combination with macrogol, which is a water-soluble base.

The major difference from glycolic acid is that it can be used alone without being mixed with the base, and salicylic acid does not need to be adjusted in concentration. In addition, the time to apply to the skin is fixed at about 5 minutes, and even if it is applied for a certain period of time or more, the depth of penetration of the drug does not change, so redness and sores caused by deep penetration tend to be less likely to occur. There is .

Glycolic acid has the effect of sterilizing the acne bacterium that causes acne, so it not only removes the sebum accumulated in the pores, but also sterilizes the acne bacterium, aiming for a skin quality that is less likely to cause acne. I will.

Lactic acid

Lactic acid is a type of AHA like glycolic acid, and because it has a larger molecule than glycolic acid, it penetrates the skin shallowly and the drug stays only on the surface layer of the stratum corneum, so the effect is mild .

Therefore, it is a chemical peel that is easy to get for those who receive chemical peeling for the first time, those who want to whiten, and those who do not have glycolic acid or salicylic acid on their skin.

Trichloroacetic acid

As fibroblasts decrease with age, collagen etc. also decrease, but when chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid is performed, the drug penetrates into the dermis layer containing fibroblasts, so collagen and etc. It promotes the production of hyaluronic acid and elastin, leading to improvement of wrinkles and sagging .

However, peeling colored skin with trichloroacetic acid alone may cause pigmentation and sores .

Massage peel

Massage peel is a chemical peeling agent whose main components are trichloroacetic acid and low-concentration hydrogen peroxide, and refers to chemical peeling using a chemical called PRX-T33 from WiQo med of Italy.

By adding low-concentration hydrogen peroxide to trichloroacetic acid, the drug can penetrate into the dermis layer while suppressing the exfoliation of the epidermis, promoting the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid, and promoting skin regeneration .

Trichloroacetic acid alone causes pain and redness, but by adding low-concentration hydrogen peroxide, collagen production can be promoted without causing the frosting action that peels off the skin.

Phenol solution

It is said that the phenolic solution with the strongest effect is the first chemical peeling in Japan.

Since the drug penetrates into the dermis layer, the phenol solution promotes the production of hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin, but when the phenol solution is used for Japanese people with a thin stratum corneum, side effects such as redness and soreness appear strongly. , The downtime tends to be long .

Since it is the most effective chemical peel, it is rarely used for cosmetic purposes in Japan, but it is often used to treat diseases such as superficial basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, and Bowen's disease. There is.

Difference between chemical peeling and peeling that can be done at home

Chemical peeling is a medical practice

The Japanese Dermatological Association has clearly stated that chemical peels are medical treatments, and chemical peels must be performed by a doctor and under the supervision of a doctor .

Peeling that can be done at home has a mild peeling effect

Some products contain glycolic acid or salicylic acid for peeling that can be done at home. Commercially available peeling agents are sold at a lower concentration than peeling received at medical institutions in consideration of safety, so the exfoliating action of keratin is milder than that of chemical peeling.

Glycolic acid containing a concentration of 3.6% or more is designated as a "poisonous and deleterious substance", so it is a "deleterious substance" that can be obtained by those who have completed the department of applied science, pharmacists, etc. Only the person who holds the qualification of "Handling Manager" can handle it . Therefore, it is difficult to obtain a peeling agent containing 3.6% or more of glycolic acid outside of medical institutions.

According to the Cosmetic Standards Law, salicylic acid can be added to commercial cosmetics at a concentration of up to 0.2% of the formulation .

Peeling agents that can be obtained by private import from overseas may contain 3.6% or more of glycolic acid and 0.2% or more of salicylic acid, and transfer or sale to others is prohibited by law. It can be used by the purchaser himself. However, you should be careful when using it as it may cause redness and sores .

Types of peeling you can do yourself

Soap peeling

Soap peeling is a simple peeling method that can be used not only on the face but also on the whole body and can be used every day. AHA and salicylic acid are included as peeling agents.

Gel peeling

Gel peeling is mainly composed of a gelling agent that hardens when it is rubbed and a surfactant that has a sterilizing and bactericidal effect. A peeling that removes sebum.

Some gel peels contain AHA and salicylic acid.

Iontophoresis that can be expected to have a synergistic effect when used in combination with chemical peels

Iontophoresis_skin structure that can be expected to have a synergistic effect when used in combination with chemical peels

By removing dead skin cells with chemical peels, the original function of the skin can be restored, but after receiving chemical peels, the skin is very sensitive and easily irritated, so be sure to moisturize and take care of it. You need to do it.

However, the lotion and serum that you usually use penetrates only into the stratum corneum, not into the layers below the stratum corneum.

Therefore, depending on the medical institution, iontophoresis, which allows the active ingredients of the skin such as vitamin C and amino acids to penetrate into the skin, may be combined with chemical peeling.

Iontophoresis is a procedure that allows amino acids and vitamin C, which are difficult to inhale through the skin, to penetrate into the skin by passing a weak electric current .

The stratum corneum is acidic and rich in positive ions, while the stratum granulosum and below are alkaline and rich in negative ions. Therefore, because there is a thin electric film between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum, they repel each other, making it difficult for beauty essence to penetrate below the stratum granulosum.

By passing a weak electric current with an iontophoresis machine, the repulsion between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum weakens, making it easier for beauty essence to penetrate.

If you are a medical institution, you can aim for a synergistic effect in combination with other treatments such as chemical peeling and iontophoresis, and it can be said that you can receive effective chemical peeling treatment .