"Regenerative medicine" is a medical treatment that regenerates defective or damaged body tissue, and is a medical treatment that is still under research and development.
Among regenerative medicine, PRP therapy is a treatment that uses components extracted from one's own blood . It is used in various fields such as knee osteoarthritis, which causes pain and swelling due to inflammation or deformation of the knee joint due to trauma or disorder caused by sports, aging, etc. ..
In recent years, PRP therapy has come to be performed because it can be expected to be effective in improving skin problems such as wrinkles, sagging, bears under the eyes, moss on the cheeks, and nasolabial folds . Since it uses its own blood, it is considered a safe procedure with almost no rejection or allergic reactions .
If you check in advance how PRP therapy can approach skin problems, risks, side effects, and precautions, you can receive the treatment with peace of mind.
Table of contents
Human blood is divided into liquids and solids. The liquid part is called plasma and makes up about 45% of the blood. Plasma is made up of about 90% water and proteins, glucose, lipids, metal ions, electrolytes, hormones and vitamins.
The individual part of blood is about 55% and is made up of "red blood cells", "white blood cells" and "platelets". Red blood cells have the function of carrying oxygen throughout the body, and white blood cells phagocytose and digest substances unnecessary for the body, such as viruses and bacteria that have invaded the body and cells that have died in the body, and against viruses and bacteria. Has the function of producing antibodies.
In addition to the function of stopping bleeding when injured, platelets contain "growth factor" that promotes cell differentiation that divides cells and acquires functions that each cell has a role to play. .. Growth factors contained in platelets divide and differentiate various cells to create blood vessels, repair defective tissues, and increase the firmness and elasticity of the skin such as collagen and elastin. Approach the troubles of.
PRP is an abbreviation for Platelet Rich Plasma and is called platelet-rich plasma in Japanese . Literally, plasma that is high in platelets and can be produced by centrifuging the blood. Blood components become heavier in the order of plasma, platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells, and the heavier components are precipitated by centrifuging.
When blood is centrifuged, a layer containing plasma and a large amount of platelets is formed, which is called PRP . However, plasma, platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells cannot be separated neatly, and PRP also contains trace amounts of white blood cells and red blood cells.
Since PRP is high in platelets, it also contains many growth factors. There are many types of growth factors, each of which works differently. There are four main types of growth factors related to aesthetic medicine .
PDGF is called platelet-derived growth factor in Japanese. It was named because PDGF was first discovered on platelets.
It was also found that PDGF is released at the timing when platelets collapse when blood coagulates, and is also produced by cells such as macrophages, which are a type of white blood cell, endothelial cells (Naihisaibo), smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. I am.
PDGF has this name because it was first isolated from platelets, but it is also produced by various cancer cells and normal cells such as macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells.
PDGF moves (migrates) from the place where it was produced and released to another place, and when it finds a cell that needs division or differentiation, it binds to that cell and signals to divide or differentiate the cell . The cells that PDGF can signal include fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, glial cells, and chondrocytes.
Among the cells that PDGF can signal, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells are deeply involved in cosmetology.
Fibroblasts are cells in the dermis layer of the skin and have the function of producing collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, etc. that make up the dermis layer, but their function declines due to aging and stress. However, the proliferation of fibroblasts restores function and increases the production of the components that make up the dermis layer .
Smooth muscle cells are cells required to make up the muscles of blood vessels, urinary bladder, uterus, and other ductal and sac-like organs. PDGF promotes proliferation and promotes angiogenesis .
In addition, PDGF also has the function of promoting the migration of fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and white blood cells (neutrophils and monocytes). Leukocytes, one of the cells that PDGF can promote migration, produce growth factors such as bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) by migrating.
bFGF is also known as an angiogenesis factor, and as the name implies, it is a growth factor that creates blood vessels. It is said that it forms a new vascular network in combination with the action of PDGF and restores blood flow in areas where blood flow is stagnant .
Growth factors such as PDGF and bFGF increase the production of components that make up the dermis layer, and new granulation tissue is formed by new blood vessels , blood flow is restored, and collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, etc. that have decreased increase. This can be expected to be effective in improving skin problems .
TGF-β is a growth factor also called transforming growth factor-β. Like PDGF, it is contained in platelets and is released by the breakdown of platelets when blood coagulates.
TGF-β has three similar DNA sequences, which are represented as TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, and have different functions. Studies have shown that of the three types, TGF-β1 , is deeply involved in cosmetology and wound healing .
TGF-β is present in α-granule in platelets. It has a molecular weight of 25,000 and two peptides form a dimer by SS bond. There are several TGF-βs with similar structures. In mammals, there are three types, TGF-β1, β2, and β3, and the homology of amino acid sequences is 70 to 80% of each other. TGF-β1 is more potent than TGF-β2 for blood cells. The effects of the three TGF-β isoforms are often common, although there are differences.
TGF-β1 can send signals to many cells such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, blood cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells. It promotes division and differentiation of cells that you want to proliferate, and suppresses division and differentiation of cells that you do not want to proliferate . In addition, it has the function of working to kill cells that have failed to function normally .
It has a growth-suppressing function and a growth-promoting function for epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and blood cell lineage cells, but it sends a signal to fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells to proliferate mainly. As a result of sending signals to fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, collagen, which is a component of the dermis layer, and fibronectin, which has the role of adhering cells to each other, can be increased.
The action of TGF-β1 helps PDGF to form new granulation tissue .
VEGF, also called vascular endothelial growth factor, is contained in platelets and is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells, luteal cells, and adrenocortical cells.
As the name implies, VEGF is a growth factor that is deeply involved in angiogenesis because it has the function of proliferating the cells that make up the vascular endothelium . It not only proliferates vascular endothelial cells, but also promotes vascular permeability.
Blood vessels allow water and low-molecular-weight substances to pass outside the blood vessels, but have the function of not allowing proteins containing large growth factors to pass through. The passage of blood vessels outside the blood vessels other than water and low-molecular substances is called vascular permeability.
VEGF increases vascular permeability to allow intravascular growth factors to be excreted outside the blood vessels , and the aforementioned growth factors such as PDGF and TGF-β promote angiogenesis, cell division, and cell differentiation .
EGF is also called epidermal growth factor and is a growth factor that is resistant to heat and acid. In addition to being contained in platelets, it is also contained in saliva and urine.
EGF is a growth factor that promotes the proliferation of fibroblasts, epidermal cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and various other epidermal cells . However, TGF-β may suppress the signal of EGF so that the cells do not grow too much. In addition, TGF-β also has the function of killing cells that have failed to function normally, so the epithelial cells with reduced function are killed and new epithelial cells proliferated by EGF are established.
When performing PRP therapy in cosmetology, it is necessary to inject the extracted PRP into the area to be improved . Infusions are often done by injection.
The injection needle used when injecting PRP is an extra-fine needle. The fineness of the needle is expressed in units called G (gauge), and the larger the number, the thinner the needle. Generally, needles used for illness and blood donation are 17G to 23G, and needles used for injecting drugs in cosmetic medicine such as PRP are around 30G .
It is said that the thinner the needle, the less pain the injection causes.
As a general rule, the treatment sites for PRP therapy in cosmetology are the head (hair), face, neck, and hands .
Since the part that can be treated depends on the medical institution, please contact the medical institution in advance to see if the desired part can be treated.
Since PRP therapy uses injections, most people feel pain even if the needle is thin . Since there are individual differences in how pain is felt, those who are vulnerable to pain can relieve the pain by using anesthesia such as cream anesthesia .
However, some medical institutions do not provide anesthesia, so please contact the medical institution in advance if you wish to have anesthesia.
Internal bleeding and swelling may occur at the injection site when PRP therapy is given, but it can be covered with makeup . There are individual differences, but it is said that it will settle down in about a week .
PRP therapy is not a procedure that allows you to feel the immediate effect of an injection . It takes 1 to 3 months for the effect to begin to appear because it takes time for the PRP injected subcutaneously to release the growth factor and the growth factor divides and differentiates various cells and repairs the wound. It is said to be a degree .
Regenerative medicine includes not only PRP therapy but also treatment using iPS cells and human hepatocytes. It is a treatment method that is often taken up in the news, but it is still under research and is a developing treatment.
The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has registered with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare when conducting research and development of regenerative medicine, manufacturing of cells used for treatment, and treatment of regenerative medicine, as it is necessary to provide regenerative medicine promptly while ensuring safety. It is required by law.
Since PRP therapy is also one of the regenerative medicine , registration with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is always required even if the treatment is performed for the purpose of beauty . A regenerative medicine number will be issued when you register with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Whether it is registered with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare can be confirmed on the website of the medical institution or on the official website of regenerative medicine created by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Official website for regenerative medicine
It is illegal to perform PRP therapy at a medical institution that is not registered for regenerative medicine .
Dermapen 4 intentionally punctures the skin (epidermis layer or dermis layer) with an extra-fine needle to promote wound healing and measure the growth of collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, etc., leading to improvement of skin problems. It is a treatment.
It is said that by intentionally making a needle hole with Dermapen 4 and then applying PRP , the PRP component (growth factor) enters the epidermis layer and dermis layer and the wound healing power can be improved.
Since PRP uses blood, the combination of Dermapen 4 and PRP is also called "vampire facial".
Vampire facials are said to bring firmness and elasticity to the skin, as well as improve crater skin with acne scars and irregularities .
Water light injection is called injection, but unlike hand-made injection, it is a procedure to inject a drug using a machine .
By using the machine, it is possible to inject while sucking the skin one shot at a time, and it is said that the pain of needle sticks is less likely to be felt because the stimulation of suction becomes more conscious. In addition, it is possible to inject 5 to 9 needles at a time with one shot, enabling efficient treatment. In addition, the needle length, injection amount, skin suction pressure, and suction timing can be set, so PRP can be injected evenly to the treatment site.
When performing water light injection, it is possible to inject not only PRP but also an additional drug mixed with beauty ingredients such as hyaluronic acid and vitamin C.
PRP therapy can be expected to improve thinning hair if it is applied to the head . If the treatment is applied to the face, neck and hands, it can be expected to be effective for skin rejuvenation such as wrinkles, sagging and dullness .
It is said that thinning hair is caused by a decrease in the function of cells that produce hair and a disorder in the hair cycle.
In Hague therapy, a drug called Hague Cocktail is injected into the scalp of thinning hair to work on dermal papilla cells, hair matrix cells, and surrounding hair follicle stem cells that have lost their activity . It is said that by activating the function of each cell, the disorder of the hair cycle is returned to the normal cycle and hair growth is promoted.
Hague therapy is also a type of regenerative medicine and can only be taken at medical institutions that have a regenerative medicine number.
Lasers are a type of light, just like sunlight and fluorescent lights. Light has a wavy nature, and the length from the peak to the peak (valley to valley) of the wave is called the wavelength. Various wavelengths are gathered in sunlight and fluorescent lamps, but lasers take out one wavelength and amplify it.
There are multiple wavelengths that can be irradiated by the laser machine, and the depth of the skin depends on the wavelength. In addition, the wavelength of the laser is characterized by being absorbed by specific substances such as melanin, which causes spots and freckles, and hemoglobin, which causes redness, and is converted into heat.
When the light of a laser absorbed by a specific substance such as melanin or hemoglobin is converted into heat, that heat destroys the specific substance . By irradiating melanin with laser light, melanin is destroyed and it can be expected to be effective for spots, freckles, and dull skin .
Furthermore, it is said that by applying heat to a specific substance, it can also stimulate surrounding tissues. It stimulates the fibroblasts in the dermis to stimulate the production of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. As a result, it leads to improvement of skin elasticity and firmness .
IPL is a kind of light like laser. Unlike lasers, it has multiple wavelengths, making it possible to approach multiple specific substances with a single treatment .
There are wavelengths that are absorbed by melanin, hemoglobin, and subcutaneous water, and the substances that absorb the wavelengths are converted into heat and destroy specific substances. It is said that it can stimulate fibroblasts when it reacts to subcutaneous water. By irradiating melanin, hemoglobin, and subcutaneous water, it is expected to be effective in improving spots, freckles, acne scars, skin firmness and elasticity .
The output is weaker than that of a laser, and it is recommended to perform multiple treatments before you can feel the effect. However, since it has less effect on the surrounding tissues, the downtime is short and it is difficult for the treatment to be performed.
Hythe is an abbreviation of English "High lntensity Focused Ultrasound" which means high-intensity focused ultrasonic waves, and is a method of collecting and irradiating high-frequency ultrasonic waves at one point.
Just as black paper burns when sunlight is concentrated on one point with a magnifying glass, ultrasonic waves are concentrated on a certain part of the body to collect heat and raise the temperature . Since protein has the property of shrinking due to heat (heat shrinkage), it is expected to have the effect of pulling up slack and improving the opening of pores when the target area with hyphen becomes hot, just as it shrinks when meat is baked. I can do it.
In addition, since the heat of hyphen stimulates fibroblasts in the dermis layer, it is possible to improve the firmness and elasticity of the skin by increasing collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid.