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The effect of penetrating tranexamic acid and vitamin C deep into the skin by iontophoresis



The effect of penetrating tranexamic acid and vitamin C deep into the skin by iontophoresis

In cosmetic medicine, there are treatments such as hyaluronic acid injection and water light injection that inject the drug into the skin by injection, but with "iontophoresis", beauty is effective deep into the skin without making a hole in the skin with a needle. Ingredients can be sent .

Recently, even beauty salons have a menu that introduces ions into hair, and various iontophoresis devices for home use are on the market, so it can be said to be one of the familiar beauty methods.

However, there are some caveats when doing it at home, and if you continue to do it the wrong way, you may get inflamed. To be safe, you need to know the mechanism and drugs that can introduce ions.

Iontophoresis that exceeds the barrier function of the skin

Iontophoresis is called the iontophoresis method, and by applying a weak electric current to the skin using an iontophoresis device, a water-soluble beauty active ingredient that can only reach the surface of the skin by simply applying it by hand is produced. , It is a method to penetrate deep into the skin .

Iontophoresis is the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into the skin by application of an electric current. The drug is applied under an electrode of the same charge as the drug, and a return electrode opposite in charge to the drug is placed at a neutral site on the body surface. Electrical energy assists the movement of ions across the skin using the principle "like charges repel each other and opposite charges attract".

Source : Iontophoresis in dermatology

The skin usually has a barrier function that blocks foreign substances from outside the body and harmful substances such as bacteria, ultraviolet rays, chemical substances, dust, and viruses from entering the body and prevents the evaporation of water.

The skin provides an effective barrier between the organism and the environment, preventing the invasion of pathogens and fending off chemical and physical assaults, as well as the unregulated loss of water and solutes.

Source : The skin's barrier

The barrier function that protects the skin also blocks the penetration of active ingredients into the skin, so even if a beauty ingredient is applied to the surface of the skin, it will not reach deep into the skin under normal conditions.

However, with iontophoresis, a weak electric current can temporarily exceed the barrier function and deliver the beauty active ingredient deep into the skin .

Expected effects of iontophoresis

With iontophoresis, the following effects can be expected depending on the active ingredients of beauty.

  • Removal of active oxygen
  • Emission and suppression of melanin pigment
  • Improvement of pigmentation
  • Acne improvement
  • Improvement of firmness and texture

Iontophoresis mechanism

In iontophoresis, first apply a negatively charged alkaline beauty active ingredient to the skin, or place a cotton or sheet mask containing the ingredient on the skin, and then apply a weak negative electricity with an iontophoresis device.

Then, the components and electricity repel each other between the minuses, so it breaks through the barrier function and escapes to the depths of the skin , that is, it penetrates deep into the skin.

This is the same characteristic that a magnet attracts the north and south poles and repels the same poles.

Ion derivation to remove dirt

Iontophoresis is to send the component to the depths of the skin by passing the current of the same electrode as the active ingredient of beauty applied to the skin, but by utilizing the property of attracting negative and positive, it is possible to pass a positive current. The method of discharging negatively charged dirt such as old keratin and dust is called iontophoresis.

Those who are suitable for iontophoresis

Iontophoresis depends on the active ingredient used, but the following effects can be expected, and it can be applied not only to the face (except for the upper eyelids and lips), but also to the neck, décolletage, and back .

  • Those who are worried about the opening of pores
  • Those who want a firm feeling on the skin
  • Those who want to improve dark spots and dullness
  • Those who are concerned about the redness of acne scars
  • Prevention of acne scars
  • Those who want texture and transparency on the skin
  • Improvement of oily skin
  • Photoaging prevention
  • Turnover normalization
  • Moisturizing effect
  • Those who are concerned about atopic skin
  • I'm worried about bears around my eyes

Recommended frequency and number of iontophoresis

It is said that the effect of iontophoresis can be felt even once, but it is said that if it is continued regularly, the skin quality will gradually improve, and the effect and sustainability will increase.

In addition, although the effect of the treatment varies from person to person, it is said to last for about 1 to 2 weeks . As a guide , 5 to 10 times at a pace of once every 1 to 2 weeks .

Difference between iontophoresis and home skin care

Skin care products penetrate the stratum corneum

The skin is layered from the outside with the epidermis and dermis, and the epidermis is further divided into four layers: the stratum corneum, the stratum granulosum, the stratum spinosum, and the stratum basale. In the epidermal layer of the skin, skin cells are reborn in a cycle of approximately 28 days. This skin metabolism is called "turnover".

New cells are created from the "basal layer" at the bottom of the epidermis and are pushed up to the "stratum spinosum", "granular layer" and upper layers over a period of about 14 days, and finally the top "" It is pushed up to the stratum corneum. This process is called keratinization.

The cells produced from the basal layer are thinly stacked as the "stratum corneum" and serve as a barrier function. When you finish your role there, it becomes dirt and peels off.

In normal skin care, this barrier function rarely allows the active ingredient to penetrate into the basal layer at the bottom of the epidermis and the dermis layer below it. The purpose of skin care products is limited to moisturizing the stratum corneum .

The thickness of the skin is about 2 mm, but most of it is the dermis layer. The dermis layer contains collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid and fibroblasts that produce them, and plays an important role in maintaining elasticity and elasticity.

With iontophoresis, many active ingredients can be delivered to the dermis layer below the stratum corneum in about 30 minutes.

Conditions for components that can introduce ions

There are several conditions for the active ingredients of cosmetology used in iontophoresis.

① It is a water-soluble component

There are water-soluble skin care products such as lotion and oil-soluble products that contain oil such as oil and cream, but iontophoresis must be a component that is easily dissolved in "water" that conducts electricity. there is.

Of the oil-soluble vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C, oil-soluble ones cannot be ionized (difficult to dissolve in water) even when an electric current is applied, so they are not used for iontophoresis .

② The numerator is small

A substance consists of molecules in which atoms, which are the smallest particles that make up a substance, are linked. In cosmetological ingredients, if the molecular weight, which is the total number of atoms, is large, it cannot be expected to penetrate the skin.

Cosmetological ingredients are said to have a molecular weight of approximately 500 daltons or less (dalton is a unit of molecular weight) to be absorbed between cells, meaning that even if iontophoresis breaks through the barrier function, the molecular weight is too large. It means that there is no effect.

Therefore, hyaluronic acid with a molecular weight of 1 million daltons or more and collagen with a molecular weight of 100,000 daltons or more are not used for iontophoresis.

Material properties that can be adapted to percutaneous absorption include low molecular weight (500 Da or less for passive diffusion 1) and some degree of hydrophobicity.

Source : Percutaneous penetration of macromolecules by iontophoresis

③ No preservatives are used

Since general lotion often contains fat-soluble components, surfactants that make it difficult to separate water and oil are used. It also contains fragrances and preservatives.

If these ingredients are delivered deep into the skin by iontophoresis , they can cause irritation, and the cosmetological active ingredients used by iontophoresis must be preservative-free.

Types of beauty active ingredients that can be iontophoresis

There are the following types of components that can be used for iontophoresis, and it is also possible to combine each component for iontophoresis.

  • Vitamin C (vitamin C derivative)
  • Tranexamic acid
  • Placenta
  • Glycylglycine

Vitamin C if you are worried about dark spots and dullness

Vitamin C is well known to improve dark spots and dullness because it suppresses the production of melanin pigments. However, it promotes the production of collagen and elastin to increase skin elasticity, wrinkles, acne scars, and pores. It can also be expected to have the effect of improving the opening of the skin and suppressing sebum, leading to skin quality that is less likely to cause acne.

In addition, by promoting the production of collagen and elastin in the dermis layer, the turnover of the epidermis layer is normalized, and the firmness and texture are adjusted.

In addition, the action of removing active oxygen enhances metabolism and can be expected to have a whitening effect.

Expected effects of vitamin C

  • Prevents skin aging: Antioxidant action reduces active oxygen that grows due to ultraviolet rays and has a whitening effect
  • Improvement of pigmentation such as spots, dullness, acne scars: suppresses melanin pigmentation and normalizes turnover
  • Acne improvement: Controls sebum secretion
  • By promoting collagen production and smoothing the renewal of the skin, the firmness and texture are smoothed and the opening of pores is improved.

Vitamin C derivative

Vitamin C is an unstable component that oxidizes quickly and is sensitive to light and heat. "Vitamin C derivatives" stabilize vitamin C and make it easier to handle. It easily penetrates into the skin and dissolves not only in water but also in oil, so it can be added to cosmetics containing oil such as cream.

Similar to the action of vitamin C, it can be expected to have effects such as reduction of active oxygen, improvement of spots and dullness, improvement of firmness and texture, and improvement of pore opening.

If you are worried about chloasma, tranexamic acid

Also known as transamine, it is an ingredient used in oral administration and injections as a hemostatic, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effect. It is used as an internal medicine and an external medicine in the field of beauty.

It is also said to be effective against chloasma, which is a type of stain that tends to worsen with irritation, and low-dose tranexamic acid can be purchased as an over-the-counter drug.

In addition, because it has an anti-inflammatory effect, it can be expected to have the effect of soothing the skin after sunburn and suppressing the inflammation of acne and rough skin.

Expected effects of tranexamic acid

  • Improvement of chloasma, spots, pigmentation such as acne scars, dullness: suppresses the production of melanin pigment
  • Inflammation of acne and rough skin ・ Sedation of skin after sunburn: Anti-inflammatory effect

Placenta for improving wrinkles and skin quality

Placenta is the "placenta" and is rich in nutrients necessary for the growth of the foetation, such as growth factors, amino acids, peptides, vitamins, minerals, proteins, and hyaluronic acid.

It has effects such as cell metabolism and antioxidant action, blood flow improvement, inflammation suppression, melanin production suppression and excretion, and activation of fibroblasts that produce collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid.

The effect you can expect from placenta

  • Prevents skin aging: Antioxidant action reduces active oxygen that grows due to ultraviolet rays and has a whitening effect
  • Improvement of pigmentation such as spots, dullness, acne scars: suppresses melanin pigmentation and normalizes turnover
  • By promoting collagen production and smoothing the renewal of the skin, the firmness and texture are smoothed and the opening of pores is improved.

Glycylglycine (GG) for opening pores

Glycylglycine consists of two amino acids and is a type of peptide that is said to improve pore opening.

"Open pores" are dents in the skin around the pores. If the amount of "unsaturated fatty acids" contained in sebum is high, the cells of the skin do not divide normally, and the skin around the pores may appear to be dented and open.

Glycylglycine is also a constituent of collagen and can be expected to have the effect of normalizing the cells of the skin around the mortar-shaped dented pores.

In addition, it suppresses inflammation that causes rough skin.

Expected effects with glycylglycine

  • Improvement of pore opening
  • Rough skin: anti-inflammatory effect

Esthetic and household iontophoresis and precautions

The output decreases in the order of medical institution, beauty treatment salon, and home use.

In addition, some iontophoresis devices as household facial equipment have only iontophoresis functions or both iontophoresis and ion derivation functions, and the price varies depending on the functions.

When starting household iontophoresis, adjust the frequency of use according to your skin condition, such as twice daily for 1 to 2 months in the morning and evening, and several times a week when problems begin to improve. It will be.

Beauty salons and iontophoresis device for home use, because it has been designed to be used safely without medical workers, but poor penetration than iontophoresis conducted at medical institutions, as long as it is for home use The advantage is that you can do it whenever you want.

Possibility of troubles such as inflammation

There are various types of cosmetics, from expensive brands sold in department stores to those sold at relatively low prices in drug stores, such as those called petit plastics.

Not all of these cosmetics can be used with iontophoresis. As mentioned above, it must be oil-free and small in size. In addition, it is necessary to avoid cosmetics that contain ingredients such as preservatives that have an adverse effect if they penetrate the skin.

In addition, it is said that it is preferable to apply the iontophoresis device to the same part for about 30 seconds because it is a treatment in which an electric current is passed even though it is weak.

If you continue to use cosmetics that are not suitable for iontophoresis, those that contain ingredients that are not suitable for you, or if you misuse the iontophoresis device, your skin may become inflamed.

Differences from other treatments that deliver the active ingredient to the skin

In addition to iontophoresis, phonophoresis and electroporation are other methods of delivering the active ingredient deep into the skin.

These methods are technologies developed in the medical field to deliver drugs into the blood to the organs and relieve symptoms. In dentistry, it is used for local anesthesia and for introducing fluorine to make strong teeth, and in cosmetology, it is applied to the method of infiltrating the active ingredient into the skin.

Electroporation (electroporation)

Electroporation uses an electric current in the same way as iontophoresis, but by making a small hole in the stratum corneum of the skin, the active ingredient of cosmetology penetrates into the dermis layer .

There is no need to ionize (dissolve in water) the active ingredient, and hyaluronic acid and collagen, which have large molecular weights, can also penetrate .

Growth factors and umbilical cord blood stem cell culture supernatant, which is a component contained in the so-called umbilical cord, can be formulated and a drug called "baby skin" can be penetrated into the skin by electroporation. ..

In addition, the skin of healthy people is kept weakly acidic with a pH of 4.5 to 6.0, but with iontophoresis, the pH value of the skin is increased by infiltrating the negatively charged beauty ingredients that are inclined to alkalinity. Will change. On the other hand, with electroporation, the pH value of the skin does not change, so it can be said that it is less irritating .

Phonophoresis (sonophoresis)

Introducing ultrasonic waves is a method of applying ultrasonic vibrations to the skin about 3 million times per second to form a temporary cavity in the stratum corneum (cavitation) and allowing beauty ingredients to permeate through it. It is possible to introduce a component with a larger molecular weight than the introduction.

Some machines can perform electroporation and phonophoresis at the same time.

Precautions and side effects of iontophoresis

Pain of treatment due to iontophoresis

Iontophoresis uses weak electricity, so you may feel tingling or itching, but it is not painful.

If you are doing " Zeo Skin Health ", which is skin care performed at home, you may have a sensation of stains, so if you are sensitive to irritation and feel uncomfortable, tell the practitioner and adjust the output. you can get.

Those who cannot receive iontophoresis

Since iontophoresis involves an electric current, the following people are contraindicated and cannot receive treatment.

  • Those who use a pacemaker
  • Pregnant
  • Those with heart problems
  • Areas with scars, inflammation, or eczema
  • Those who have gold thread
  • Those who are contraindicated for iontophoresis drugs

Also, remove metal such as accessories such as piercings and rings , and hearing aids during the procedure .

Side effects of iontophoresis

It is said that there are almost no side effects of iontophoresis, but if the active ingredient does not suit the skin, the following symptoms may appear as an allergic reaction.

  • Those who use a pacemaker
  • Redness
  • itch
  • rash
  • Rash

These symptoms tend to subside within a few days over time, but if the symptoms persist, please consult the medical institution that received the treatment.

Iontophoresis cost market

The fee for iontophoresis increases as the treatment range increases, so it varies depending on the treatment site and the beauty ingredients to be penetrated, but for facial treatment, it is about 5,000 to 15,000 yen per treatment.

In addition, many medical institutions offer 5 to 6 times courses because it can be expected to improve skin quality by performing multiple times. In addition, a set fee with chemical peeling may be set.

Iontophoresis is covered by insurance and may be used as a treatment for "hyperhidrosis". It is said that sweating is suppressed by the action of hydrogen ions generated by immersing the palms and soles of the feet in water and passing a weak electric current.

Procedure flow and precautions after treatment

The treatment time is about 30 minutes.

(1) Counseling

The doctor will check the condition of the skin through counseling and medical examination, and decide on the beauty ingredients that are suitable for the skin problems.

(2) Cleansing / washing face

For facial treatments, cleansing removes makeup and cleanses the skin to keep it clean. Remove sebum and make-up to prevent skin problems due to low penetration rate due to residual sebum and preservatives (paraben) contained in make-up.

(3) Treatment

Place a sheet containing beauty ingredients on your skin and apply an electric current with an iontophoresis device. After the treatment, some medical institutions have a set menu such as a pack to soothe the skin.

In rare cases, redness and rashes may occur, but immediately afterwards, a moisturizing effect is often felt, and it is said that there is almost no downtime.

The treatment can be performed on the skin immediately after sunburn, and any skin can be treated, but please take sufficient moisturizing and sunburn measures after the treatment .

Treatment performed in combination with iontophoresis

Peeling treatment

Peeling is a treatment that promotes skin regeneration by removing old keratin that has thickened due to the disorder of the turnover cycle, which is the metabolism of the skin. At medical institutions, in addition to chemical peels that apply and wipe off chemicals, there are also hydra facials (water peels), which are treatments using a machine that uses a stream of water.

After removing excess keratin by peeling, the skin's absorption capacity is also high, so if iontophoresis is performed, it can be expected that the penetration rate will increase and damage from the outside world will be prevented .

Laser treatment and light (IPL) treatment

By performing iontophoresis after irradiation treatment such as laser treatment or light (IPL) treatment , if the active ingredient is absorbed by iontophoresis into the skin after treatment that wants nutrition , recovery from damage caused by the treatment will be accelerated. Can be expected.

After irradiation treatment, the production of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid in the dermis layer is promoted, and the excretion of melanin pigment is promoted, and metabolism becomes active.

After irradiation treatment, iontophoresis supplements the active ingredient to support these functions.

Dermapen 4

Dermapen 4 is a treatment that uses the natural healing power to make invisible fine needle holes on the skin surface by moving the needle up and down at high speed and to repair the open needle holes.

In the process, along with the action of fibroblasts, which are the source of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid, skin turnover is activated, improving acne scars and scars, and acting on fine wrinkles to lead to firm skin. I will.

Iontophoresis is performed after the treatment of Dermapen 4 to soothe the skin .

To get the effect of iontophoresis

Iontophoresis can be done at home by using an iontophoresis device that can be used at home, but it is necessary to select an active ingredient suitable for iontophoresis, and although it is weak, electricity flows, so iontophoresis is performed evenly as a whole. It is also necessary to pay attention to how to apply the introducer.

If you are a medical institution, you can safely receive treatment under the guidance of a healthcare professional after selecting the active ingredient that suits your symptoms .

In addition, synergistic effects can be expected by combining with other treatments such as laser treatment, light (IPL) treatment, and chemical peeling, so high effects can be expected by performing these treatments together.